A Guide To TMF and MATCH Lists

A Guide To TMF and MATCH Lists
By max May 8, 2023

TMF (Terminated Merchant File) and MATCH (Merchant Alert To Control High-Risk) are blacklists maintained by credit card companies to flag merchants engaged in potentially fraudulent behavior. Being added to these lists can significantly damage a merchant’s business by cutting off their access to credit card payments and consumer trust. While inclusion aims to sanction bad actors and protect buyers, the consequences of ending up on TMF or MATCH also demonstrate the substantial power that credit card issuers wield over the financial system.

This guide explores these controversial lists in-depth, from how merchants earn themselves a spot to the long odds of removing such a designation. For merchants, understanding these lists is critical to avoiding such perilous sanctions in the first place and navigating the Byzantine processes required to petition for removal if listed. Consumers also benefit from the comprehension of these blacklists, as they shape the e-commerce and payment experiences that individuals encounter each and every day.

Though often shrouded in mystery, TMF and MATCH lists represent an invisible form of regulation in the online economy with very real ramifications. The threat of being added and de-platformed is always present, even for the largest and most reputable of merchants. For this reason, the topic of credit card company blacklists deserves scrutiny and discussion to shine a light on their impact and inner workings. An informed perspective is the only defense against what amounts to a sort of financial death penalty for those doomed to reside on these dubious lists.

TMF (Terminated Merchant File) List

compare credit card processing fees

TMF, or the Terminated Merchant File, is a permanent blacklist maintained by major credit card companies of merchants barred from accepting credit card payments. Once a merchant is added to the TMF list, they lose the ability to conduct any credit card transactions, essentially destroying their business. Inclusion in TMF is an extremely difficult sanction to overcome, as it represents a complete termination of credit card processing privileges with no path to restoration.

Merchants end up on the TMF list for engaging in the most fraudulent, unethical, or outright illegal behavior according to credit card companies. Common reasons for TMF inclusion involve:

  • Repeat chargebacks: A high volume of chargebacks, especially over a short period of time, signals to issuers that a merchant’s transactions may be fraudulent.
  • Suspicious activity: Unusually high sale volumes, a spike in transactions, or a misleading business description can trigger a TMF review.
  • False advertising: Merchants that lure customers in with deceptive marketing claims or false promises of discounts/rewards are frequent TMF candidates.
  • Outright scams: In the most egregious cases, TMF is used to blacklist merchants actively defrauding buyers or running scams. This could include everything from counterfeit goods to Ponzi schemes.

Being added to TMF follows a merchant’s permanent financial ruin as they lose the ability to legally transact with over 60% of consumers via credit/debit cards. Unlike MATCH, TMF is not intended as a watchlist or warning system but rather a sledgehammer to dismantle those threatening the payment network. As such, removal from TMF, if possible at all, is an exceptionally rare and difficult process not guaranteed to restore a merchant’s business in any real sense. TMF exists as a testament to the power that credit card companies can wield over any player in the financial system.

MATCH (Merchant Alert To Control High-Risk) List


MATCH, which stands for Merchant Alert To Control High-Risk, is a watchlist maintained by credit card companies of merchants they deem suspicious or risky but not warranting an outright TMF ban (yet). Being added to the MATCH list subjects a merchant to extra scrutiny, audits, limits, and penalties but they are still permitted to accept credit cards, unlike TMF. However, inclusion in MATCH puts issuers on high alert for fraudulent activity and gives them grounds to quickly escalate to a TMF ban should suspicious transactions be detected.

Merchants end up on the MATCH list based on attributes that credit card companies believe correlate with higher fraud risk, including:

  • Recent rapid growth: Merchants that experience a huge spike in sales volume or transactions in a short period of time can be flagged as potentially suspicious. This could signal the addition of stolen card data or other unlawful means of growth.
  • Poor reputation: A questionable business reputation, numerous unresolved customer complaints, or very poor online reviews are all red flags that can lead to MATCH inclusion.
  • Questionable industry or location: Operating in an industry prone to fraud like diet supplements, work-at-home jobs, or payday loans increases the chance of landing on MATCH. Certain geographic regions are also seen as higher risk matters.
  • Limited history: Merchants with little experience or a short track record in business may be viewed as riskier, especially if handling high-value items or sensitive customer data.

While on the MATCH list, merchants face additional charges, reviews, audits, limits, and even account suspension if suspicious activity is detected. However, their business is not officially terminated like TMF. Removal from MATCH is possible by demonstrating a clean transaction history, changes in ownership/management, or third-party audits proving a commitment to best practices. But inclusion still damages reputation and trust and provides issuers justification for that figurative “financial sword of Damocles” to hang over the merchant’s head.

Why These Lists Matter

TMF and MATCH blacklists matter greatly because of the impact they have on merchants and consumers alike. For merchants, inclusion means losing the ability to conduct business as usual by accepting credit card payments, crippling revenue and potentially destroying their livelihood. Such inclusion also damages reputation, discourages investor interest, and creates barriers to obtaining financial services going forward.

For consumers, these lists shape their e-commerce experiences and options in countless ways each day. The threat of being added to TMF/MATCH influences everything from business practices to product selection to marketing approaches for merchants hoping to avoid sanctions. Savvy buyers also consider TMF/MATCH status when evaluating merchants to decide where and how they will shop online.

These lists also represent an important tool for credit card companies and the financial system more broadly to manage risk. By curtailing or terminating the most fraudulent actors, TMF/MATCH help prevent chargebacks, scams, data breaches, and other threats that could undermine trust in payments, accounts, and accounts. However, their use must be balanced and transparent to avoid becoming a means of arbitrary punishment or excessive control over legitimate businesses.

Given their power over the economy and individuals, more light must shine on how these lists actually work. Who gets added and why? What precisely leads to erasure versus sanction? How much evidence is required and oversight applied? Lacking answers to these questions allows for abuse and unjustified restrictions on people’s livelihoods and access. Transparency builds accountability and trust in the system.

While TMF and MATCH serve an important purpose, that does not justify a lack of scrutiny or oversight. Policies should be fair, consistent, and narrowly tailored to address substantiated malicious activity alone. Merchants and consumers alike deserve recourse and appeal processes with a reasonable chance of success, not reflexive denial and destruction of the business. With greater understanding and demand for reform, these lists can continue fulfilling their aim of fraud prevention without overreach or irreparable harm. Their impact matters too greatly to remain shrouded in obscurity and unchecked power. Scrutiny leads to balance, and balance benefits all.